β-Cell Metabolism, Insulin Production and Secretion: Metabolic Failure Resulting in Diabetes

Younan Chen, Vinicius F. Cruzat, Philip Newsholme

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Located in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, β cells perform essential hormone secretory functions that affect metabolism. Nutrients are potent regulators of β-cell insulin secretion, which is essential to the organism. In the past few decades, changes in lifestyle, especially related to overnutrition, has increased the global incidence of obesity-associated diabetes. In this scenario, impairment to β-cell function may lead to failure and gradual progression to type 2 diabetes. Multiple molecular pathways have been identified that contribute to dysfunction associated with glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have led to a better understanding of the complexities of β-cell dysfunction and how it interferes in the pathways of insulin secretion and action. New therapeutic strategies targeting the molecules sensitive and responsive to cell nutrition in the context of diabetes present new opportunities and are presented in the present chapter.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMolecular Nutrition and Diabetes
Subtitle of host publicationA Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages29-40
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9780128015858
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Amino acids
  • Glucose
  • Glucotoxicity
  • Inflammation
  • Lipotoxicity
  • NADPH
  • Non-esterified fatty acids
  • Oxidative stress

Cite this

Chen, Y., Cruzat, V. F., & Newsholme, P. (2015). β-Cell Metabolism, Insulin Production and Secretion: Metabolic Failure Resulting in Diabetes. In Molecular Nutrition and Diabetes: A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series (pp. 29-40). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801585-8.00003-8