Adaptive gbest-guided gravitational search algorithm

Seyedali Mirjalili, Andrew Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

179 Citations (Scopus)


One heuristic evolutionary algorithm recently proposed is the gravitational search algorithm (GSA), inspired by the gravitational forces between masses in nature. This algorithm has demonstrated superior performance among other well-known heuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation and genetic algorithm. However, slow exploitation is a major weakness that might result in degraded performance when dealing with real engineering problems. Due to the cumulative effect of the fitness function on mass in GSA, masses get heavier and heavier over the course of iteration. This causes masses to remain in close proximity and neutralise the gravitational forces of each other in later iterations, preventing them from rapidly exploiting the optimum. In this study, the best mass is archived and utilised to accelerate the exploitation phase, ameliorating this weakness. The proposed method is tested on 25 unconstrained benchmark functions with six different scales provided by CEC 2005. In addition, two classical, constrained, engineering design problems, namely welded beam and tension spring, are also employed to investigate the efficiency of the proposed method in real constrained problems. The results of benchmark and classical engineering problems demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1569-1584
Number of pages16
JournalNeural Computing and Applications
Issue number7-8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Constrained optimisation
  • Evolutionary algorithms
  • Exploration and exploitation
  • Heuristics
  • Optimisation


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