An Effective Imputation Method Using Data Enrichment for Missing Data of Loop Detectors in Intelligent Traffic Control Systems

Payam Gouran, Mohammad H. Nadimi-Shahraki, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Seyedali Mirjalili

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In intelligent traffic control systems, the features extracted by loop detectors are insufficient to accurately impute missing data. Most of the existing imputation methods use only these extracted features, which leads to the construction of data models that cannot fulfill the required accuracy. This deficiency is the main motivation to propose an enrichment imputation method for loop detectors namely EIM-LD, in which the imputation accuracy is increased for different missing patterns and ratios by introducing a data enrichment technique using statistical multi-class labeling. It first enriches the clean data by adding a statistical multi-class label, including C1…Cn classes. Then, the class of samples in the missed-volume data is labeled using the best data model constructed from the labeled clean data by five different classifiers. Experts of the traffic control department in Isfahan city determined classes of the statistical multi-class label for n = 5 (class labels), and we also developed subclass labels (n = 20) since the number of samples in the subclass labels was sufficient. Next, the enriched data are divided into n datasets, each of them is imputed independently using various imputation methods, and their results are finally merged. To evaluate the impact of using the proposed method, the original data, including missing volumes, are first imputed without our enrichment method. Then, the proposed method’s accuracy is evaluated by considering two class labels and subclass labels. The experimental and statistical results prove that the proposed EIM-LD method can enrich the real data collected by loop detectors, by which the comparative imputation methods construct a more accurate data model. In addition, using subclass labels further enhances the imputation method’s accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3374
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • imputation method
  • intelligent traffic control system
  • intersection traffic
  • loop detector
  • missed-volume data
  • multi-class


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