Anemia prevalence in women of reproductive age in low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2018

D. Kinyoki, A.E. Osgood-Zimmerman, N.V. Bhattacharjee, L.E. Schaeffer, A. Lazzar-Atwood, D. Lu, S.B. Ewald, K.M. Donkers, I.D. Letourneau, M. Collison, M.F. Schipp, A. Abajobir, S. Abbasi, N. Abbasi, M. Abbasifard, M. Abbasi-Kangevari, H. Abbastabar, F. Abd-Allah, A. Abdelalim, S.M. Abd-ElsalamA. Abdoli, I. Abdollahpour, A. Abedi, H. Abolhassani, B. Abraham, L.G. Abreu, M.R.M. Abrigo, A. Abualhasan, E. Abu-Gharbieh, A.I. Abushouk, M.M.K. Accrombessi, M. Adabi, O.M. Adebayo, A.E. Adegbosin, V. Adekanmbi, O.O. Adetokunboh, D.A. Adeyinka, D. Adham, S.M. Advani, P. Agasthi, M. Aghaali, S. Ahmad, T. Ahmad, K. Ahmadi, S. Ahmadi, M.B. Ahmed, M.T.E. Aichour, B. Aji, O.O. Akinyemi, A. Aklilu, C.J. Akunna, Z. Al-Aly, T.M. Alanzi, J.E. Alcalde-Rabanal, B.W. Alemu, A. Alemu, R.K. Alhassan, S.M. Alif, V. Alipour, H. Alizade, S.M. Aljunid, A. Almasi-Hashiani, H.M. Al-Mekhlafi, R.M. Al-Raddadi, N. Alvis-Guzman, S. Amini, F. Amiri, D.A. Amugsi, N.H. Anber, R. Ancuceanu, T. Andrei, M.T. Anegago, M. Anjomshoa, F. Ansari, A. Ansari-Moghaddam, Z.A. Anteneh, E. Antriyandarti, D. Anvari, R. Anwer, M. Aqeel, J. Arabloo, M. Arab-Zozani, O. Aremu, H.A. Areri, A. Artaman, A. Arzani, M. Asaad, M. Asadi-Aliabadi, A.A. Asadi-Pooya, M.A. Asemahagn, M. Asghari Jafarabadi, M.M. Ashebir, Z. Ataro, S.M. Athari, S.S. Athari, M.M.W. Atout, M. Ausloos, N. Awoke, B.P. Ayala Quintanilla, G. Ayano, M.A. Ayanore, Y.A. Aynalem, M.A. Ayza, A. Azadmehr, D. B, T.K. Babalola, A. Badawi, A.D. Badiye, M.A. Bahrami, M. Bairwa, S.M. Bakkannavar, P.C. Banik, A.G. Baraki, M.A. Barboza, H. Basaleem, S. Basu, M. Bayati, B.A. Baye, G. Bazmandegan, N. Bedi, T.T.T. Bekuma, M.L. Bell, I.M. Bensenor, K. Berhe, A.K. Berhe, K.A. Berhie, D. Bhandari, N. Bhardwaj, P. Bhardwaj, K. Bhattacharyya, S. Bhattarai, Z.A. Bhutta, A. Bijani, B. Bikbov, A. Biondi, M. Birhanu, R.K. Biswas, M.J. Bockarie, S. Bohlouli, M. Bohluli, A. Boloor, S. Borzouei, N.L. Bragazzi, D. Braithwaite, A.R. Brunoni, S. Burugina Nagaraja, Z.A. Butt, F.L. Caetano dos Santos, L.A. Cámera, J. Car, R. Cárdenas, F. Carvalho, J.M. Castaldelli-Maia, C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela, F. Castro, M. Cevik, W.F. Chanie, J. Charan, S. Chatterjee, V.K. Chattu, S. Chaturvedi, S. Chen, K.L. Chin, M.A.K. Chowdhury, A.J. Cook, V.M. Costa, E.A. Cromwell, B.A. Dachew, H. Dagne, B. Dagnew, T. Dahiru, S.M.A. Dahlawi, H. Dai, L. Dandona, R. Dandona, P. Daneshpajouhnejad, F. Daoud, J.K. Das, R. Das Gupta, A.P. Dash, C.A. Dávila-Cervantes, K. Davletov, F. Deeba, J.-W. De Neve, E. Denova-Gutiérrez, K. Deribe, A. Desalew, G.A. Dessie, S. Dey, M. Dhimal, G.P. Dhungana, M. Dianatinasab, D. Diaz, I.O. Dipeolu, S. Djalalinia, H.T. Do, F. Dorostkar, L. Doshmangir, B. Duko, A.R. Duraes, L. Earl, H.A. Edinur, F. Efendi, R. Elayedath, T.B. Elema, H.R. Elhabashy, S.I. El-Jaafary, I. El Sayed, M. El Sayed Zaki, A. Elsharkawy, Y.M. El-Sherbiny, M. El Tantawi, D.A. Endalew, B. Eshrati, K. Eskandari, S. Eskandarieh, I. Fadhil, E.J.A. Faraon, M. Fareed, P.S. Faris, M. Farwati, F. Farzadfar, A.O. Fasanmi, N. Fattahi, N.K. Fauk, V.L. Feigin, B.E. Feleke, S.-M. Fereshtehnejad, E. Fernandes, P. Ferrara, N.A. Foigt, A.A. Fomenkov, M. Foroutan, J.M. Francis, R.C. Franklin, M. Freitas, T. Fukumoto, M.M. Gad, A.M. Gaidhane, R.T. Gayesa, B.S. Geberemariyam, B.G. Gebregiorgis, H. Gebremariam, T.B.B. Gebremariam, L. Gebremeskel, G.G. Gebremeskel, A.A. Gebreslassie, Y.C.D. Geramo, H.A. Gesesew, B.D. Gessner, L. Getacher, K. Ghadiri, F. Ghaffarifar, M. Ghafourifard, M. Ghajarzadeh, F. Ghamari, A. Ghashghaee, N. Ghith, S.A. Gilani, T.K. Gill, M.A. Godinho, P.N. Gona, A. Grada, M.I.M. Gubari, N. Gudi, D. Guido, R.A. Guled, Y. Guo, R. Gupta, A. Haj-Mirzaian, R.R. Hamadeh, D.W. Handiso, A. Hanif, A. Hargono, A.I. Hasaballah, S.S. Hasan, S.S. Hasan, M. Hashemian, A. Hashi, S. Hassan, A. Hassan, S. Hassanipour, H. Hassankhani, K. Hayat, M.I. Hegazy, R. Heidari-Soureshjani, N.J. Henry, C. Herteliu, F. Heydarpour, S. Heydarpour, H.D. Hidru, C.L. Hoang, R. Holla, J. Hon, S.H. Hong, P. Hoogar, S.N. Hosseini, M. Hosseinzadeh, M. Hostiuc, S. Hostiuc, P.J. Hotez, M. Househ, T.M. Huda, D.H.H. Huluko, S.A. Hussain, B.-F. Hwang, O.S. Ilesanmi, I.M. Ilic, M.D. Ilic, L.R. Inbaraj, U. Iqbal, M.M. Islam, S.M.S. Islam, C.J. Iwu, C.C.D. Iwu, F. Jadidi-Niaragh, M.A. Jahani, V. Jain, M. Jakovljevic, A. Jalali, F. Jalilian, M.D. Janodia, T. Javaheri, R.P. Jha, O. John, K.B. Johnson, J.B. Jonas, J. Jonnagaddala, N. Joseph, A. Joshi, F. Joukar, J.J. Jozwiak, A. Kabir, Z. Kabir, T. Kahlon, L.R. Kalankesh, R. Kalhor, A. Kamath, Z. Kamiab, T. Kanchan, U. Kapil, N. Kapoor, B. Karami Matin, S.E. Karimi, A.S. Kasa, G.G. Kasahun, Z.Y. Kassa, G.G. Kassa, G. Kassahun, G.A. Kayode, A. Kazemi Karyani, T.S. Keflie, P.N. Keiyoro, B. Kelkay, M. Keramati, D.B. Ketema, N. Khalid, M. Khammarnia, M. Khan, M. Khan, J. Khan, K. Khatab, A.M. Khater, M.M. Khater, A.T. Khoja, J. Khubchandani, N. Kianipour, Y.-E. Kim, Y.J. Kim, R.W. Kimokoti, S. Kisa, A. Kisa, T. Kolola, A. Koolivand, S. Kosen, P.A. Koul, A. Koyanagi, K. Krishan, V. Krishnamoorthy, B. Kuate Defo, N. Kugbey, V. Kulkarni, G.A. Kumar, N. Kumar, P. Kumar, M. Kumar, O.P. Kurmi, D. Kusuma, B. Lacey, D.P. Lad, D.K. Lal, F.H. Lami, I. Landires, A.O. Larsson, S. Lasrado, M.B. Laurens, C. La Vecchia, A. Laxmaiah, P.H. Lee, S.W.H. Lee, K.E. LeGrand, S. Lewycka, B. Li, S. Li, X. Liu, J.C.F. Lopez, D.B. Machado, S. Madhava Kunjathur, M. Magdy Abd El Razek, M. Magdy Abd El Razek, D.R. Mahadeshwara Prasad, P.W. Mahasha, M. Maheri, N.B. Mahotra, A. Majeed, V. Maled, S. Maleki, R. Malekzadeh, D.C. Malta, A.A. Mamun, F. Mansour-Ghanaei, B. Mansouri, M.A. Mansournia, M.D.D. Manzar, C.A. Marrugo Arnedo, F.R. Martins-Melo, A. Masaka, P.K. Maulik, B.K. Mayala, M. Mehari, M.M. Mehndiratta, E. Mehrabi Nasab, F. Mehri, K.M. Mehta, W.B. Meitei, T. Mekonnen, G.G. Meles, M. Melku, W. Mendoza, R.G. Menezes, M.B. Mengesha, E.W. Mengesha, T.J. Meretoja, A.M. Mersha, W.M. Metekiya, T. Miazgowski, I.M. Michalek, G.K. Mini, S.A. Mir, A. Mirica, E.M. Mirrakhimov, H. Mirzaei, M. Mirzaei, M. Mirzaei-Alavijeh, S. Misra, B. Moazen, M. Moghadaszadeh, Y. Mohammad, D.K. Mohammad, N. Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, S.M. Mohammadi, A. Mohammadian-Hafshejani, R. Mohammadpourhodki, H.M. Mohammed, S. Mohammed, A.S. Mohammed, J.A. Mohammed, M.A. Mohseni Bandpei, A.H. Mokdad, A. Molassiotis, L. Monasta, M. Moradi-Lakeh, M. Moradi-Lakeh, R. Moradzadeh, P. Moraga, A. Mosapour, S. Mouodi, S.M. Mousavi, A. Mousavi Khaneghah, G.B.B. Mulu, M. Munir, M.K. Muriithi, G.V.S. Murthy, G. Mustafa, A.F. Nabhan, M. Naderi, A.J. Nagarajan, S.P. Nagaraju, M. Naghavi, G. Naik, M.D. Naimzada, V. Nangia, J.R. Nansseu, A.A. Naqvi, B.R. Nascimento, S. Nayak, V.C. Nayak, J. Nazari, R. Ndejjo, I. Negoi, R.I. Negoi, H.B. Netsere, G. Nguefack-Tsague, J.W. Ngunjiri, C.T. Nguyen, D.N. Nguyen, H.L.T. Nguyen, Y.T. Nigatu, R. Nikbakhsh, A.R. Nikpoor, C.A. Nnaji, V.M. Nong, J.J. Noubiap, V. Nunez-Samudio, V.E. Nwatah, T. Nyanhanda, B. Oancea, F.A. Ogbo, O.B. 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Sudaryanto, M.B. Sufiyan, I. Sultan, R. Tabarés-Seisdedos, T. Tabuchi, B.W. Taddele, E.G. Tadesse, A. Taherkhani, Z. Tamir, A.T. Tamiru, M.I. Tareque, A. Tbakhi, H. Teame, Y.G. Tefera, A. Tehrani-Banihashemi, Y. Tekalegn, M.G. Tekle, B.F. Teklehaimanot, M.-H. Temsah, G.A. Tesema, K.R. Thankappan, N. Thomas, T. Tiki, A.B. Tilahune, M.V. Titova, M.R. Tovani-Palone, K.B. Tran, B.X. Tran, R. Tripathi, J.P. Tripathy, P.N. Truong, R. Uddin, A. Ullah, C.D. Umeokonkwo, C.J. Uneke, B. Unnikrishnan, E. Upadhyay, M.S. Usman, M. Vacante, A. Vakilian, S.V. Tahbaz, P.R. Valdez, Y. Vasseghian, M. Verma, F.S. Violante, B. Vo, Y.D. Wado, Y. Waheed, Y. Wang, Y.-P. Wang, K. Wangdi, G.T. Weldesamuel, A. Werdecker, T. Wiangkham, N.D. Wickramasinghe, C.S. Wiysonge, T.E. Wonde, A.-M. Wu, C. Wu, Y. Xie, A. Yadollahpour, S.H.Y. Jabbari, T. Yamada, M. Yang, S. Yaya, V. Yazdi-Feyzabadi, T.Y. Yeheyis, A. Yeshaneh, Y. Yeshaw, Y.G. Yeshitila, M.T. Yilma, P. Yip, M.F. Young, Z. Yousefi, T. Yousefinezhadi, H.-A.S.A. Yousof, A.Y. Yousuf, C. Yu, Y. Yu, S. Zafar, S.S. Zaidi, Z. Zaidi, J. Zakzuk, S. Bin Zaman, M. Zamani, M. Zamanian, A. Zandifar, A. Zangeneh, M.S. Zastrozhin, A. Zastrozhina, D.T. Zewdie, K.A. Zewdie, Y. Zhang, C. Zhu, A. Ziapour, N.J. Kassebaum, S.I. Hay, Local Burden of Disease Anaemia Collaborators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Anemia is a globally widespread condition in women and is associated with reduced economic productivity and increased mortality worldwide. Here we map annual 2000–2018 geospatial estimates of anemia prevalence in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) across 82 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), stratify anemia by severity and aggregate results to policy-relevant administrative and national levels. Additionally, we provide subnational disparity analyses to provide a comprehensive overview of anemia prevalence inequalities within these countries and predict progress toward the World Health Organization’s Global Nutrition Target (WHO GNT) to reduce anemia by half by 2030. Our results demonstrate widespread moderate improvements in overall anemia prevalence but identify only three LMICs with a high probability of achieving the WHO GNT by 2030 at a national scale, and no LMIC is expected to achieve the target in all their subnational administrative units. Our maps show where large within-country disparities occur, as well as areas likely to fall short of the WHO GNT, offering precision public health tools so that adequate resource allocation and subsequent interventions can be targeted to the most vulnerable populations. © 2021, The Author(s).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1761-1782
Number of pages22
JournalNature Medicine
Volume27
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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