Anti-Counterfeiting and Traceability Consensus Algorithm Based on Weightage to Contributors in a Food Supply Chain of Industry 4.0

Ji Tan, S. B. Goyal, Anand Singh Rajawat, Tony Jan, Neda Azizi, Mukesh Prasad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Supply chain management can significantly benefit from contemporary technologies. Among these technologies, blockchain is considered suitable for anti-counterfeiting and traceability applications due to its openness, decentralization, anonymity, and other characteristics. This article introduces different types of blockchains and standard algorithms used in blockchain technology and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. To improve the work efficiency of anti-counterfeiting traceability systems in supply chains and reduce their energy consumption, this paper proposes a model based on the practical Byzantine fault tolerance (PBFT) algorithm of alliance chains. This model uses a credit evaluation system to select the primary node and integrates the weightage to contributors (WtC) algorithm based on the consensus mechanism. This model can reduce the decline in the algorithm success rate while increasing the number of malicious transaction nodes, thereby reducing the computing cost. Additionally, the throughput of the algorithmic system increases rapidly, reaching approximately 680 transactions per second (TPS) in about 120 min after the malicious nodes are eliminated. The throughput rapidly increases as the blacklist mechanism reduces the number of malicious nodes, which improves the system’s fault tolerance. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, a case study was conducted using data from the anti-counterfeiting traceability system of the real-life supply chain of a food company. The analysis results show that after a period of stable operation of the WtCPBFT algorithm in the proposed model, the overall communication cost of the system was reduced, the throughput and stability were improved, and the fault-tolerant performance of the system was improved. In conclusion, this paper presents a novel model that utilizes the PBFT algorithm of alliance chains and the WtC algorithm to improve the efficiency and security of anti-counterfeiting traceability systems in supply chains. The results of the case study indicate that this model can effectively reduce communication costs, improve throughput and stability, and enhance the fault tolerance of the system.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number7855
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2023


  • Consensus algorithm
  • Food supply chain
  • Blockchain technology
  • Anti-counterfeiting


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