Anxiety and Sleep Disturbances Among Health Care Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic in India: Cross-Sectional Online Survey

Bhawna Gupta, Vyom Sharma, Narinder Kumar, Akanksha Mahajan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a serious concern among the global medical community and has resulted in an unprecedented psychological impact on health care workers, who were already working under stressful conditions. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate and measure the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the anxiety levels and sleep quality among health care workers in India, as well as to determine how the unavailability of personal protective equipment affects their willingness to provide patient-related care. METHODS: We conducted an online cross-sectional study using piloted, structured questionnaires with self-reported responses from 368 volunteer male and female health care workers in India. Study participants were identified through social networking platforms such as Facebook and WhatsApp. The survey evaluated the participants' degree of signs and symptoms of anxiety and sleep quality based on the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale and single-item Sleep Quality Scale, respectively. Information on the availability of personal protective equipment was collected based on responses to relevant survey questions. RESULTS: The majority of health care workers (126/368, 34.2%) were in the age group 45-60 years, and 52.2% (192/368) were doctors. Severe anxiety (ie, GAD-7 score >10) was observed among 7.3% (27/368) health care workers, whereas moderate, mild, and minimal anxiety was observed among 12.5% (46/368), 29.3% (108/368), and 50.8% (187/368) health care workers, respectively. Moreover, 31.5% (116/368) of the health care workers had poor-to-fair sleep quality (ie, scores
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e24206-e24206
JournalJMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 22 Dec 2020


  • *COVID-19
  • *GAD-7
  • *anxiety
  • *health care worker
  • *mental health, personal protective equipment
  • *occupational epidemiology
  • *online survey
  • *pandemic
  • *sleep
  • *sleep quality
  • Adult
  • Anxiety/*epidemiology
  • COVID-19/*epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Personnel/*psychology/statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • India/epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • *Pandemics
  • Sleep Wake Disorders/*epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


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