Awareness, prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in Western Nepal

Dinesh Neupane, Archana Shrestha, Shiva Raj Mishra, Joakim Bloch, Bo Christensen, Craig S. McLachlan, Arjun Karki, Per Kallestrup

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38 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND Hypertension is a significant contributor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. In low-income settings like Nepal, there are few epidemiological studies assessing hypertension burden. Thus, the purpose was to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Nepal. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in semi-urban area of western Nepal among randomly selected participants, aged between 25 and 65 years. Systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of ≥90 mm Hg and/or taking current antihypertensive medicine defined as hypertension. RESULTS Study included 2,815 participants, 1,844 were women. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 28%. Of the study participants, 17% were daily smokers, 12% harmful alcohol drinkers, 90% consuming low levels of fruit and/or vegetable, and 7% reported low physical activity. Among hypertensive participants, 46% were aware of their preexisting hypertension, 31% were on hypertensive medication, and 15% met BP control targets. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06; 1.08), higher body mass index (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06; 1.12), men (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.25; 2.14), harmful alcohol intake (Or: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.73; 3.51), family history of hypertension (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.14; 1.76), and diabetes (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.30; 3.33) were independently associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of hypertension was found high in western Nepal. A number of risk factors were identified as possible drivers of this burden. Thus, there is an urgent need to address modifiable risk factors in semi-urban settings of western Nepal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)907-913
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Hypertension
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Blood pressure
  • Cross-sectional studies
  • Epidemiology
  • Hypertension
  • Nepal
  • Prevalence
  • Risk factors


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