Binary bat algorithm

Seyedali Mirjalili, Seyed Mohammad Mirjalili, Xin She Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

568 Citations (Scopus)


Bat algorithm (BA) is one of the recently proposed heuristic algorithms imitating the echolocation behavior of bats to perform global optimization. The superior performance of this algorithm has been proven among the other most well-known algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the original version of this algorithm is suitable for continuous problems, so it cannot be applied to binary problems directly. In this paper, a binary version of this algorithm is proposed. A comparative study with binary PSO and GA over twenty-two benchmark functions is conducted to draw a conclusion. Furthermore, Wilcoxon's rank-sum nonparametric statistical test was carried out at 5 % significance level to judge whether the results of the proposed algorithm differ from those of the other algorithms in a statistically significant way. The results prove that the proposed binary bat algorithm (BBA) is able to significantly outperform others on majority of the benchmark functions. In addition, there is a real application of the proposed method in optical engineering called optical buffer design at the end of the paper. The results of the real application also evidence the superior performance of BBA in practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)663-681
Number of pages19
JournalNeural Computing and Applications
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Bat algorithm
  • Binary optimization
  • Bio-inspired algorithm
  • Discrete evolutionary algorithms
  • Discrete optimization
  • Optical buffer design
  • Optimization


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