Clinical intervention rates in community pharmacy: A randomised trial of the effect of education and a professional allowance

Shalom I. Benrimoj, Jane H. Langford, Geoffrey Berry, David Collins, Roberta Lauchlan, Kay Stewart, Paul R. Ward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To quantify the rate of clinical interventions by community pharmacists, and to determine the effect of providing targeted education and/or fee-for-service professional remuneration on the rate of clinical interventions. Methods: A randomised trial involving four groups of 10 community pharmacies: group A served as a control and received neither education nor remuneration; group B received education and professional remuneration; group C received "advanced" education and professional remuneration; and group D received professional remuneration with no education. Pharmacists in all groups documented interventions for three one-week periods. Types of intervention were pre-specified by the researchers and logged as such by the pharmacists. Interventions were categorised as "reactive" or "proactive" by a panel comprising a community pharmacist and a hospital pharmacist. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare differences in intervention rates between the groups at baseline, between groups over time (six weeks), and within groups over time. Results: 87,130 prescription items were dispensed in the study period, and there were 762 clinical interventions, an intervention rate of 0.87%. Of the total, 375 (0.43%) were proactive and 387 (0.44%) were reactive. Groups B and C showed increases in clinical intervention rates immediately after the educational intervention, but these rates then decreased between week 1 and 2. Over the study period, group D had statistically significant reductions in intervention rates from baseline (total, reactive and proactive), and group A showed statistically significant reductions in reactive intervention rates. Conclusions: The results from this study show that providing remuneration alone or maintaining the status quo (ie, neither remuneration nor education) did not lead to an increase in clinical interventions in community pharmacies. Increases in rates within the groups receiving education and remuneration were short lived. Developing and implementing educational programmes in addition to fee-for-service remuneration packages may have a positive impact on clinical intervention rates. Longitudinal work is required to investigate the sustainable effects of longer-term education strategies on clinical interventions in community pharmacy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-80
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003


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