Aim: The purpose of the study were (i) to screen for cognitive impairment using Mini-Mental Status Examination among three old-age groups based on dwelling types in Chennai, India i.e. residential paid old-age homes, residential free (charitable) homes and home-based community-dwelling residents; (ii) secondly to investigate factors (demographic, psychological, medical and disability) associated with cognitive impairment in the these old-age; (iii) third, to investigate the independent association between cognitive impairment and health-related quality of life (QOL) among elderly across aged care dwelling types. Methods: A total of 499 elderly from three old-age groups were interviewed in this cross-sectional study (173 elderly homebased community-dwellers, 176 paid-home and 150 free-home residents). All the participants were interviewed for their socio-economic condition, medical morbidity, self-reported worry and anxiety, disability and QOL. Results: 42.7% free-home elderly residents were found to have cognitive impairment, whereas 32.4% of paid-home and 21.9% of community-dwelling elderly had cognitive impairment. The residents of free-home were less educated, had lower income and reported higher incidence of worry, anxiety, disability and poor QOL than community-dwelling or paid-home residents. Increasing age, low education, female gender, high blood pressure and disability were associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment had significant negative effect on their health-related QOL (b=-0.10, P=0.01), independent of age, gender, education, chronic illness and dwelling type. Conclusion: The burden of cognitive impairment was high in all aged-care dwelling types in urban India; with free charitable home residents being worse affected. Cognitive impairment was associated with disability and poor health-related QOL in these age-care settings.