Dragonfly algorithm: a new meta-heuristic optimization technique for solving single-objective, discrete, and multi-objective problems

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543 Citations (Scopus)


A novel swarm intelligence optimization technique is proposed called dragonfly algorithm (DA). The main inspiration of the DA algorithm originates from the static and dynamic swarming behaviours of dragonflies in nature. Two essential phases of optimization, exploration and exploitation, are designed by modelling the social interaction of dragonflies in navigating, searching for foods, and avoiding enemies when swarming dynamically or statistically. The paper also considers the proposal of binary and multi-objective versions of DA called binary DA (BDA) and multi-objective DA (MODA), respectively. The proposed algorithms are benchmarked by several mathematical test functions and one real case study qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of DA and BDA prove that the proposed algorithms are able to improve the initial random population for a given problem, converge towards the global optimum, and provide very competitive results compared to other well-known algorithms in the literature. The results of MODA also show that this algorithm tends to find very accurate approximations of Pareto optimal solutions with high uniform distribution for multi-objective problems. The set of designs obtained for the submarine propeller design problem demonstrate the merits of MODA in solving challenging real problems with unknown true Pareto optimal front as well. Note that the source codes of the DA, BDA, and MODA algorithms are publicly available at http://www.alimirjalili.com/DA.html.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1053-1073
Number of pages21
JournalNeural Computing and Applications
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016
Externally publishedYes



  • Benchmark
  • Binary optimization
  • Constrained optimization
  • Evolutionary algorithms
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Multi-objective optimization
  • Optimization
  • Particle swarm optimization
  • Swarm intelligence

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