EH-CRAM: A sustainable energy harvesting algorithm for LPWANs

Absar Ul Haque Ahmar, Thien Duc Nguyen, Wouter Joosen, Danny Hughes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies offer the advantage of wide coverage areas and low power consumption for low data-rate Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. LoRaWAN, the Long Range Wide Area Network is a key technology in this space, with a growing worldwide presence. LoRa devices are expected to operate autonomously for extended periods in order to support diverse IoT applications. Despite being energy efficient, frequent battery replacements are typically required over the lifetime of a LoRa device. This increases maintenance costs and furthermore, disposing of large numbers of dead batteries is damaging to the environment. Energy harvesting offers a potential solution, but it is difficult to ensure sustainability. In this paper, we propose EH-CRAM, a centralised Kalman filter-based optimisation algorithm where the gateway is responsible for controlling End-Device configurations (i.e: data transmission rates, spreading factors and energy harvesting period) based upon incoming traffic and solar energy, thus balancing energy supply and demand. In addition, by using a time-synchronised cryptographic frequency hopping scheme, EH-CRAM also tackles the issues of energy efficiency and performance. Our evaluation shows that EH-CRAM significantly reduces contention, while maximising reliability and energy efficiency to support sustainable energy-harvesting for LoRa End-Devices (ED’s).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2021
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781728195056
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes
Event2021 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2021 - Nanjing, China
Duration: 29 Mar 20211 Apr 2021

Publication series

NameIEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC
ISSN (Print)1525-3511


Conference2021 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2021


  • Battery-less
  • End-Device (ED)
  • Energy efficiency (EE)
  • Internet-of-Things (IoT)
  • Kalman Filter
  • LoRa
  • Spreading Factor (SF)
  • Sustainable Energy Harvesting (EH)
  • Transmission rate (TR)


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