Frailty measurement in research and clinical practice: A review

Elsa Dent, Paul Kowal, Emiel O. Hoogendijk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

245 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

One of the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in older people is frailty. Frailty occurs when multiple physiological systems decline, to the extent that an individual's cellular repair mechanisms cannot maintain system homeostasis. This review gives an overview of the definitions and measurement of frailty in research and clinical practice, including: Fried's frailty phenotype; Rockwood and Mitnitski's Frailty Index (FI); the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) Index; Edmonton Frailty Scale (EFS); the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illness and Loss of weight (FRAIL) Index; Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS); the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI); Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI); PRISMA-7; Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), Sherbrooke Postal Questionnaire (SPQ); the Gérontopôle Frailty Screening Tool (GFST) and the Kihon Checklist (KCL), among others. We summarise the main strengths and limitations of existing frailty measurements, and examine how well these measurements operationalise frailty according to Clegg's guidelines for frailty classification - that is: their accuracy in identifying frailty; their basis on biological causative theory; and their ability to reliably predict patient outcomes and response to potential therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-10
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume31
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Frail elderly
  • Geriatric assessment/methods

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