Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm: Theory, Variants, and Applications

Yassine Meraihi, Asma Benmessaoud Gabis, Seyedali Mirjalili, Amar Ramdane-Cherif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

125 Citations (Scopus)


Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm (GOA) is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm inspired by the foraging and swarming behavior of grasshoppers in nature. The GOA algorithm has been successfully applied to solve various optimization problems in several domains and demonstrated its merits in the literature. This paper proposes a comprehensive review of GOA based on more than 120 scientific articles published by leading publishers: IEEE, Springer, Elsevier, IET, Hindawi, and others. It provides the GOA variants, including multi-objective and hybrid variants. It also discusses the main applications of GOA in various fields such as scheduling, economic dispatch, feature selection, load frequency control, distributed generation, wind energy system, and other engineering problems. Finally, the paper provides some possible future research directions in this area.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Economics
  • Education
  • Genetic algorithms
  • GOA
  • Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm
  • Licenses
  • Meta-heuristics
  • MIMICs
  • Optimization
  • Particle swarm optimization
  • Population-based Algorithm
  • Swarm Intelligence


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