Image Watermarking Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition for Enhanced Imperceptibility and Robustness

Mahbuba Begum, Sumaita Binte Shorif, Mohammad Shorif Uddin, Jannatul Ferdush, Tony Jan, Alistair Barros, Md Whaiduzzaman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Digital multimedia elements such as text, image, audio, and video can be easily manipulated because of the rapid rise of multimedia technology, making data protection a prime concern. Hence, copyright protection, content authentication, and integrity verification are today’s new challenging issues. To address these issues, digital image watermarking techniques have been proposed by several researchers. Image watermarking can be conducted through several transformations, such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), singular value decomposition (SVD), orthogonal matrix Q and upper triangular matrix R (QR) decomposition, and non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). However, a single transformation cannot simultaneously satisfy all the design requirements of image watermarking, which makes a platform to design a hybrid invisible image watermarking technique in this work. The proposed work combines four-level (4L) DWT and two-level (2L) SVD. The Arnold map initially encrypts the watermark image, and 2L SVD is applied to it to extract the s components of the watermark image. A 4L DWT is applied to the host image to extract the LL sub-band, and then 2L SVD is applied to extract s components that are embedded into the host image to generate the watermarked image. The dynamic-sized watermark maintains a balanced visual impact and non-blind watermarking preserves the quality and integrity of the host image. We have evaluated the performance after applying several intentional and unintentional attacks and found high imperceptibility and improved robustness with enhanced security to the system than existing state-of-the-art methods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number32
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • arnold map
  • DWT
  • imperceptibility
  • robustness
  • SVD


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