Juvenile otosclerosis and congenital stapes footplate fixation. A systematic review and meta-analysis of surgical outcomes and management

Andrew Daniel, Gideon Budiono, Amshuman Rao, Gary KK Low, Matthew Peter Ellis, Jennifer Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective: Juvenile Otosclerosis (JO) and Congenital Stapes Footplate Fixation (CSFF) are rare ossicular chain disorders seen in the paediatric population and present with conductive hearing loss. Ongoing controversy exists regarding the role of surgical intervention in JO and CSFF given the poorer hearing outcomes and complications when compared with surgical intervention for adult otosclerosis. The objective of this study is to assess the published data on the surgical outcomes of JO and CSFF in order to guide clinicians and counsel patients on the various medical options for these disease entities. Methods: A systematic review of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane was performed with inclusion criteria of children with JO or CSFF and hearing outcomes following stapes surgery. Studies identified by the search were reviewed and assessed by two independent reviewers in line with the PRISMA guidelines. Results: 464 articles were initially reviewed and 28 articles met inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 810 ears (473 and 337 cases of JO and CSFF respectively) underwent stapes surgery. Average age at time of surgery for JO and CSFF was 14.3 and 10.2 years old respectively. The mean pre-operative Air-Bone-Gap (ABG) for JO and CSFF was 31.8 ± 5.2 dB and 39.4 ± 10 dB respectively. Following stapes surgery, the mean post-operative ABG for JO and CSFF was 9.6 ± 6 dB and 19.2 ± 12.5 dB respectively. Surgical success rate (defined as ABG <10 dB) was 81% for JO and 41% for CSFF. Mean ABG gain for JO and CSFF was 24.8 dB (95% CI: 18.6–33.1) and 22.6 dB (95% CI: 18.4–27.8) respectively. The reported number of dead ears was 4/473 (0.8%) for JO and 2/337 (0.6%) for CSFF. 23 cases (2.8%) reported sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) >10 dB. Conclusion: CSFF was associated with poorer hearing outcomes compared to JO, however both entities showed similar improvement in ABG post operatively. Counselling patients and their families on the surgical success rates and complications of JO or CSFF is an important part of the decision making process when deciding between a surgical option or conservative measures such as hearing aids.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111418
JournalInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Congenital stapes footplate fixation
  • Hearing outcomes
  • Juvenile otosclerosis
  • Pediatric
  • Stapes surgery


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