Prevalence and outcomes of low-gradient severe aortic stenosis—from the national echo database of Australia

Afik D. Snir, Martin K. Ng, Geoff Strange, David Playford, Simon Stewart, David S. Celermajer

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and outcomes of the different subtypes of severe low-gradient aortic stenosis (AS) in routine clinical cardiology practice have not been well characterized. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were derived from the National Echocardiography Database of Australia. Of 192 060 adults (aged 62.8±17.8 [mean±SD] years) with native aortic valve profiling between 2000 and 2019, 12 013 (6.3%) had severe AS. Of these, 5601 patients (47%) had high-gradient and 6412 patients (53%) had low-gradient severe AS. The stroke volume index was docu-mented in 2741 (42.7%) patients with low gradient; 1750 patients (64%) with low flow, low gradient (LFLG); and 991 patients with normal flow, low gradient. Of the patients with LFLG, 1570 (89.7%) had left ventricular ejection fraction recorded; 959 (61%) had paradoxical LFLG (preserved left ventricular ejection fraction), and 611 (39%) had classical LFLG (reduced left ventricular ejection fraction). All-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality were assessed in the 8162 patients with classifiable severe AS subtype during a mean±SD follow-up of 88±45 months. Actual 1-year and 5-year all-cause mortality rates varied across these groups and were 15.8% and 49.2% among patients with high-gradient severe AS, 11.6% and 53.6% in patients with normal-flow, low-gradient severe AS, 16.9% and 58.8% in patients with paradoxical LFLG severe AS, and 30.5% and 72.9% in patients with classical LFLG severe AS. Compared with patients with high-gradient severe AS, the 5-year age-adjusted and sex-adjusted mortality risk hazard ratios were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85–1.03) in patients with normal-flow, low-gradient severe AS; 1.01 (95% CI, 0.92–1.12) in patients with paradoxical LFLG severe AS; and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.48–1.84) in patients with classical LFLG severe AS. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of those patients with echocardiographic features of severe AS in routine clinical practice have low-gradient hemodynamics, which is associated with long-term mortality comparable with or worse than high-gradient severe AS. The poorest survival was associated with classical LFLG severe AS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere021126
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume10
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Aortic stenosis
  • Low flow,Low gradient
  • Low gradient
  • Normal flow, Low gradient

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