Prevalence of central obesity and its associated risk factors among adults in Southeast Ethiopia: A community-based cross-sectional study

Yohannes Tekalegn, Damtew Solomon, Biniyam Sahiledengle, Tesfaye Assefa, Wogene Negash, Anwar Tahir, Tadele Regassa, Ayele Mamo, Habtamu Gezahegn, Kebebe Bekele, Demisu Zenbaba, Alelign Tasew, Fikreab Desta, Daniel Atlaw, Zegeye Regassa, Fikadu Nugusu, Zinash Teferu Engida, Degefa Gomora Tesfaye, Chala Kene, Wondu Shiferaw NigussieDereje Chala, Adisu Gemechu Abdi, Girma Beressa, Demelash Woldeyohannes, Heather L. Rogers, Lillian Mwanri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight are known public health problems that affect populations across the world. These conditions have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. In Ethiopia, the literature regarding the burden of central (abdominal) obesity is scarce. This study aimed to fill this gap by assessing the prevalence and risk factors associated with central obesity among adults in Ethiopia. METHODS: From May to July 2021, a community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 694 adults aged ≥18 years in administrative towns of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling was employed to identify study participants. Waist and hip circumferences were measured using standard protocols. The World Health Organization STEPS wise tool was used to assess risk factors associated with central obesity. Bi-variable and multi-variable binary logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with central obesity. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) have been reported to estimate the strength of associations. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of central obesity using waist circumference was 39.01% [(95% CI: 35.36-42.76; 15.44% for men and 53.12% for women)]. Multi-variable binary logistic regression analysis revealed that female sex (AOR = 12.93, 95% CI: 6.74-24.79), Age groups: 30-39 years old (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.59-4.94), 40-49 years (AOR = 7.66, 95% CI: 3.87-15.15), 50-59 years (AOR = 4.65, 95% CI: 2.19-9.89), ≥60 years (AOR = 12.67, 95% CI: 5.46-29.39), occupational status like: housewives (AOR = 5.21, 95% CI: 1.85-14.62), self-employed workers (AOR = 4.63, 95% CI: 1.62-13.24), government/private/non-government employees (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 1.47-14.88), and skipping breakfast (AOR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.9) were significantly associated with central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal obesity has become an epidemic in Bale Zone's towns in Southeastern Ethiopia. Female sex, age, being employed were positively associated with central obesity, while skipping breakfast was a protective factor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e0265107
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume17
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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