Recent advances in Grey Wolf Optimizer, its versions and applications: Review

Sharif Naser Makhadmeh, Mohammed Azmi Al-Betar, Iyad Abu Doush, Mohammed A. Awadallah, Sofian Kassaymeh, Seyedali Mirjalili, Raed Abu Zitar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) has emerged as one of the most captivating swarm intelligence methods, drawing inspiration from the hunting behavior of wolf packs. GWO’s appeal lies in its remarkable characteristics: it is parameter-free, derivative-free, conceptually simple, user-friendly, adaptable, flexible, and robust. Its efficacy has been demonstrated across a wide range of optimization problems in diverse domains, including engineering, bioinformatics, biomedical, scheduling and planning, and business. Given the substantial growth and effectiveness of GWO, it is essential to conduct a recent review to provide updated insights. This review delves into the GWO-related research conducted between 2019 and 2022, encompassing over 200 research articles. It explores the growth of GWO in terms of publications, citations, and the domains that leverage its potential. The review thoroughly examines the latest versions of GWO, categorizing them based on their contributions. Additionally, it highlights the primary applications of GWO, with computer science and engineering emerging as the dominant research domains. A critical analysis of the accomplishments and limitations of GWO is presented, offering valuable insights. Finally, the review concludes with a brief summary and outlines potential future developments in GWO theory and applications. Researchers seeking to employ GWO as a problem-solving tool will find this comprehensive review immensely beneficial in advancing their research endeavors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Classification algorithms
  • COVID-19
  • Evolutionary computation
  • Evolutionary Computation
  • Grey wolf Optimizer
  • Mathematical models
  • Optimization
  • Particle swarm optimization
  • Search problems
  • Swarm Intelligence


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