Objective: To identify the risk factors of esophageal cancer and study their effect on the survival rates patients of Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: Detailed information was collected on socio-demographic, dietary and clinico-pathological parameters for 200 case control pairs. Discrete (categorical) data of 2 independent groups (control and cases) were summarized in frequency (%) and compared by using Chi-square (Chi;2) test. The mean age of two independent groups was compared by independent Student's t-test. To find out potential risk factor (s), the variable (s) found significant in univariate analysis were further subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. The association of potential risk factors with patients survival (3-year overall survival) was done by Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis using Log-rank test. A 2-tailed (a = 2) P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of the 63 response parameters, seven were found highly significant on multivariate analysis. The mean (± SD) age was 56.74 ± 10.76 years, the proportions of males were higher than females, mostly illiterate and lower income group. Among dietary characteristics, snuff was highest (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.46-6.08) followed by salt tea (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.49-4.29), smoking (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.18-3.30), sundried food (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.10-2.85) and red chilly (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.07-2.89). Probability of survival lowered significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 or P < 0.001) in those consuming tobacco in the form of snuff (Log-rank c 2 = 24.62, P = 0.000) and smoking (Log-rank c2 = 5.20, P = 0.023) as compared to those who did not take these. Conclusions: The analysis finally established snuff (smokeless tobacco) as the most powerful risk factor of esophageal cancer in Jammu region, followed by the salt tea, smoking and the sundried food.
- Esophageal cancer
- risk factors