Salp Swarm Algorithm: A bio-inspired optimizer for engineering design problems

Seyedali Mirjalili, Amir H. Gandomi, Seyedeh Zahra Mirjalili, Shahrzad Saremi, Hossam Faris, Seyed Mohammad Mirjalili

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3707 Citations (Scopus)


This work proposes two novel optimization algorithms called Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA) and Multi-objective Salp Swarm Algorithm (MSSA) for solving optimization problems with single and multiple objectives. The main inspiration of SSA and MSSA is the swarming behaviour of salps when navigating and foraging in oceans. These two algorithms are tested on several mathematical optimization functions to observe and confirm their effective behaviours in finding the optimal solutions for optimization problems. The results on the mathematical functions show that the SSA algorithm is able to improve the initial random solutions effectively and converge towards the optimum. The results of MSSA show that this algorithm can approximate Pareto optimal solutions with high convergence and coverage. The paper also considers solving several challenging and computationally expensive engineering design problems (e.g. airfoil design and marine propeller design) using SSA and MSSA. The results of the real case studies demonstrate the merits of the algorithms proposed in solving real-world problems with difficult and unknown search spaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-191
Number of pages29
JournalAdvances in Engineering Software
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Algorithm
  • Benchmark
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Heuristic algorithm
  • Multi-objective optimization
  • Particle swarm optimization


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