The Effort–Reward Imbalance Questionnaire in Sinhalese: Translation, Validation and Psychometric Properties in Administrators

A. Gamage, R. De Alwis Seneviratne, F. Hanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study translated and validated the Effort–Rewards Imbalance Questionnaire among Sri Lankan government administrators. A standard translation procedure was followed in translating the Effort–Rewards Imbalance Questionnaire to Sinhala language. Modified Delphi process determined judgmental validity. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the construct validity of the translated Effort–Rewards Imbalance Questionnaire. Judgmental validity was achieved. Satisfactory test–retest reliability and internal consistency were obtained. The three subscales namely efforts, rewards and over-commitment had Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.80, 0.84 and 0.60, respectively. Four competitive models were explored. The theoretically postulated factor structure obtained the best fit according to Chi-square values and goodness-of-fit indices. The Sinhala version 22-item Effort–Rewards Imbalance Questionnaire is an acceptable, reliable and valid self-report measure in assessing occupational stress among administrators in Sri Lanka.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96-102
Number of pages7
JournalPsychological Studies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016
Externally publishedYes



  • Administrators
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Effort–Rewards Imbalance Questionnaire
  • Occupational stress
  • Psychometric properties
  • Validity

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