The impact of co-payment increases on dispensings of government-subsidised medicines in Australia

Anna Hynd, Elizabeth E. Roughead, David B. Preen, John Glover, Max Bulsara, James Semmens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Patient co-payments for medicines subsidised under the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) increased by 24% in January 2005. We investigated whether this increase and two related co-payment changes were associated with changes in dispensings of selected subsidised medicines in Australia. Method: We analysed national aggregate monthly prescription dispensings for 17 medicine categories, selected to represent a range of treatments (e.g. for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, gout). Trends in medication dispensings from January 2000 to December 2004 were compared with those from January 2005 to September 2007 using segmented regression analysis. Results: Following the January 2005 increase in PBS co-payments, significant decrease in dispensing volumes were observed in 12 of the 17 medicine categories (range: 3.2-10.9%), namely anti-epileptics, anti-Parkinson's treatments, combination asthma medicines, eye-drops, glaucoma treatments, HmgCoA reductase inhibitors, insulin, muscle relaxants, non-aspirin antiplatelets, osteoporosis treatments, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and thyroxine. The largest decrease was observed for medicines used in treating asymptomatic conditions or those with over-the-counter (OTC) substitutes. Decrease in dispensings to social security beneficiaries was consistently greater than for general beneficiaries following the copayment changes (range: 1.8-9.4% greater, p=0.028). Conclusions: The study findings suggest that recent increase in Australian PBS co-payments have had a significant effect on dispensings of prescription medicines. The results suggest large increase in co-payments impact on patients' ability to afford essential medicines. Of major concern is that, despite special subsidies for social security beneficiaries in the Australian system, the recent co-payment increase has particularly impacted on utilisation for this group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1091-1099
Number of pages9
JournalPharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 22 Dec 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Co-payment
  • Essential medicines
  • Patient contribution
  • Time series analysis
  • Utilisation


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