Coffee is a popular and widely consumed beverage worldwide, with epidemiological studies showing reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancers and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, few studies have investigated the health effects of the post-brewing coffee product, spent coffee grounds (SCG), from either hot- or cold-brew coffee. SCG from hot-brew coffee improved metabolic parameters in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome and improved gut microbiome in these rats and in humans; further, SCG reduced energy consumption in humans. SCG contains similar bioactive compounds as the beverage including caffeine, chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, polyphenols and melanoidins, with established health benefits and safety for human consumption. Further, SCG utilisation could reduce the estimated 6–8 million tonnes of waste each year worldwide from production of coffee as a beverage. In this article, we explore SCG as a major by-product of coffee production and consumption, together with the potential economic impacts of health and non-health applications of SCG. The known bioactive compounds present in hot- and cold-brew coffee and SCG show potential effects in cardiovascular disease, cancer, liver disease and metabolic disorders. Based on these potential health benefits of SCG, it is expected that foods including SCG may moderate chronic human disease while reducing the environmental impact of waste otherwise dumped in landfill.
- chlorogenic acid
- spent coffee grounds