The Whale Optimization Algorithm

Seyedali Mirjalili, Andrew Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8114 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a novel nature-inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, called Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), which mimics the social behavior of humpback whales. The algorithm is inspired by the bubble-net hunting strategy. WOA is tested with 29 mathematical optimization problems and 6 structural design problems. Optimization results prove that the WOA algorithm is very competitive compared to the state-of-art meta-heuristic algorithms as well as conventional methods. The source codes of the WOA algorithm are publicly available at

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-67
Number of pages17
JournalAdvances in Engineering Software
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Algorithm
  • Benchmark
  • Constrained optimization
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Heuristic algorithm
  • Optimization
  • Particle swarm optimization
  • Structural optimization


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