Tobacco growing and tobacco use

A.S. Martins-da-Silva, J. Torales, R.F.V. Becker, H.F. Moura, M. Waisman Campos, T.M. Fidalgo, A. Ventriglio, J.M. Castaldelli-Maia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Tobacco use is associated with an annual global economic cost of two trillion dollars and mortality of half of its regular users. Tobacco leaf cultivation is the starting point of the tobacco cycle. Tobacco farming employs millions of small-scale tobacco farmers around the globe, most of whom are out growers who rely on the tobacco industry. This paper aims to map the regions of greatest tobacco production globally (i.e., the US, Brazil, China, Indonesia, India, and Zambia) and tobacco use rates in these locations. Smoking rates were higher in those areas, except for India, where important population subgroups reported an upward trend for tobacco smoking. In general, there was a relationship between tobacco farming and tobacco smoking. Tobacco farming may lead to a higher risk of tobacco use and lower adherence to tobacco control policies. Therefore, promoting viable alternative livelihoods for tobacco farmers must have dual benefits. Additionally, specific health prevention policies might be necessary for those populations reporting higher tobacco use and lower perception of tobacco-related health risks. © 2022 Institute of Psychiatry and Johns Hopkins University.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-58
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Review of Psychiatry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Tobacco
  • tobacco growing
  • tobacco industry
  • tobacco use
  • tobacco use disorder
  • adverse event
  • agricultural worker
  • epidemiology
  • human
  • tobacco
  • Farmers
  • Humans
  • Tobacco Industry
  • Tobacco Products
  • Tobacco Use


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